Shown above are hydraulic snubbers which are used to protect critical components in refineries, power plants and other industrial plants from sudden movement by the attached piping system. Engineers specify these for systems subject to sudden accelerations caused by earthquakes, extreme wind loads or water hammer.Hydraulic snubbers resist sudden rapid movement of the pipe by limiting the flow rate of the fluid inside the snubber. The device is designed to slow movement, such as would be expected during thermal expansion, has practically no resistance, but sudden rapid movement is resisted with a force proportional to the velocity raised to a power, where the power is determined by the orifice valve and flow pattern in the design. Selection of materials and liquids used will depend on the environment where the snubber is installed.
The photograph above shows unique jack stands designed to support stainless steel pipe. The top, which connects to the pipe at elbows, is fabricated from stainless steel. The bottom, which can be used to adjust the height, is fabricated from carbon steel and the galvanized. The two dissimilar materials are separated by a polyurethane[pdf] isolation block which is painted for protection.
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The photograph above shows anchor bolts, which are to be set in concrete with only a short portion above the surface. They are used to anchor equipment to a concrete slab by attaching to the bolts. Several of these at the top of the picture have polyethylene sleeves, which keep the wet concrete away from the bolt just below the surface. This makes it easier to make slight adjustments to the position of the bolt during attachment to the equipment which is to be anchored.