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Categories - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

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What is thermal bowing?
Viewed 8527 times since Thu, Jan 24, 2013
Thermal bowing is the bending of pipe caused by thermal expansion. Deformed Pipe Read More
How do you define a hydro-test pressure based on design pressure?
Viewed 5323 times since Mon, Aug 12, 2013
Hydro-test pressure and holding times vary for different design codes. For example, the ASME SEC VIII Div.1 general hydro-test pressure will be 1.3 x design pressure (minor factors may vary for this equation as well) and for piping design codes, the... Read More
What is creep?
Viewed 3023 times since Thu, Jan 24, 2013
Creep is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of stress. Deformed Expansion Joint Read More
Does an anchor restrict motion in all direction that is X-Y-Z directions?
Viewed 2907 times since Fri, Jan 25, 2013
Anchors will restrict movement in all directions and will also restrict the rotation of the pipe as well. In the stress analysis, we may see loads in all three directions which will tell us how "strong" the anchor device has to be. Cold Shoe... Read More
Does materials incompatibility play a role on stress analysis?
Viewed 2486 times since Mon, Jan 28, 2013
Usually it would show a disparity between stresses at a particular point. For example, a carbon steel element joined to a stainless steel element would show significantly different stresses over the same temperature change. Fluoroplastic... Read More
How do you know when you are above the maximum force that the system can take?
Viewed 2302 times since Thu, Jan 24, 2013
The maximum force (allowable load) is based upon the yield strength of the material with a safety factor. If your calculated load is greater than the maximum force load, then you are above the allowable load and you will start to see deformation and... Read More
What is pipe wake?
Viewed 2256 times since Thu, Jan 24, 2013
Pipe wake is the vibrations caused by turbulent flow in piping systems. Custom Designed Sway Braces Read More
What is the Stress-Intensification Factor?
Viewed 2066 times since Mon, Sep 28, 2015
The Stress-Intensification Factor is the ratio of the maximum stress intensity compared to the nominal stress. Read More
Why is the thermal analysis done at the design temperature?
Viewed 2009 times since Thu, Jan 24, 2013
The thermal analysis is done at the design temperature because you are designing the system for its most extreme case, where the temperatures are the hottest and the movements are the greatest. Stress Analysis Test Read More
What are individual Stress-Intensification Factors (SIF) applied for?
Viewed 1648 times since Tue, Sep 29, 2015
Welds, fittings, branch connections , and other piping components where the possibility of fatigue failure could occur. Read More
Why is is necessary to eliminate excessive flexibility?
Viewed 1621 times since Fri, Oct 2, 2015
Excessive flexibility increases material costs, increases pressure drops, increase vibration, and creates 2-phase flow occurrences. Read More
What does the Maximum Shear Stress Theory state?
Viewed 1502 times since Fri, Sep 18, 2015
The maximum shear stress theory states that failure of a piping component occurs when the maximum shear stress exceeds the shear stress at the yield point in a tensile test. Read More
How are failures due to inadequate flexibility now almost nonexistent?
Viewed 1485 times since Wed, Sep 30, 2015
Increase in the number of segments (nodes) reviewed though computer use and use of precise calculations. Read More
What is the purpose of Stress Analysis?
Viewed 882 times since Wed, Sep 16, 2015
Stress analysis ensures the safety of piping and piping components, safety of connected equipment and supporting structure, and that piping deflections are within limits. Read More
What is Stress Analysis?
Viewed 840 times since Fri, Sep 11, 2015
A term applied to calculations, which address the static and dynamic loading, resulting from the effects of gravity, temperature changes, internal pressures, fluid flow, seismic activity, and any external loads. Read More
What are the 5 modes of failure of piping design?
Viewed 761 times since Wed, Sep 16, 2015
Failure by general yielding, yielding at sub-elevated temperature, brittle fractures, and fatigue. Read More
What are the effects of excessive flexibility?
Viewed 747 times since Wed, Sep 9, 2015
Excessive flexibility causes an increase in material costs, pressure drops, and loss of pump efficiency. Read More
What is the Stress-Strain curve?
Viewed 740 times since Fri, Sep 11, 2015
It is a visual representation of the effects of various loading conditions on a piping system between stress and strain. Read More
What does the Maximum Principle Stress Theory state?
Viewed 717 times since Thu, Sep 17, 2015
This theory states that yielding in a piping component occurs when the magnitude of any of the three mutually perpendicular principal stresses exceeds the yield strength of the material. Read More
What is the importance of flexibility in a piping system?
Viewed 705 times since Thu, Sep 3, 2015
Flexibility ensures that a piping system operates safely. Read More
What is the objective of having flexibility within a piping system?
Viewed 694 times since Fri, Sep 4, 2015
To produce neither excessive stress within the configuration and limit excessive end reaction at the piping terminal. Read More
What are the methods of incorporating flexibility in a piping arrangement?
Viewed 682 times since Wed, Sep 9, 2015
Using flexible piping with bends and turns, use of expansion loops between fixed locations, or use of expansion joints between two anchor points of a pipe run. Read More
What are the 5 majority causes of failures (after flexibility analysis) of a system?
Viewed 657 times since Fri, Sep 11, 2015
Vibration, thermal bowing, creep, thermal fatigue, and steam/water. Read More
Out of the Six Theories of Failure, which are the 2 that are the most widely used?
Viewed 631 times since Thu, Sep 17, 2015
The Maximum Principle Stress Theory and Maximum Shear Stress Theory Read More
What is the purpose of flexibility analysis?
Viewed 566 times since Fri, Sep 4, 2015
Flexibility analysis assures that there is not any overstress or fatigue, leakage at joints or distortions are piping connections or terminals. Read More

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