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GLOSSARY

 

Anchor Elastic Limit K-Factor Shear Strength
Axial Load Elongation Layering System Slide Plate
Base Fabrication Linear Expansion Coefficient Solvent Resistance
Band Strap Fire Temp Mean Specific Heat Sound Absorption
Bolted Flexural Strength Modulus of Elasticity Specific Heat
Calcium Silicate Frothing Process Monolar Mastic Stops
Cell Size Galvanizing Pipe Support Strain
Channel Clamp Gap Polyurethane Foam Stress
Closed Cell Content Guide Proportional Limit Tensile Strength
Cold Shoe Hanger Protection Shield Thermal Conductivity
Combustibility Hot Dip Galvanizing Rate of Rise Water Absorption
Compressive Strength Hot Shoe Rigid Urethane Foams Water Vapor Transmission
Cryogenic Inner Thrust Ring Roller Base Yield Point
Dimensional Stability Inserts Semi-rigid Urethane Foam Yield Strength


A

Anchor - A pipe support used to restrict the pipe movement at a particular location.

 

Axial Load - The component of load acting along the length of a pipe exerted by the piping system during its expansion, contraction, or movement.

 

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B

Base - The bottom component of a pipe support to uphold the piping system.

 

Band Strap - The metallic component of piping support wrapped around the protection shield to keep the assembly intact and provide the support necessary friction.

 

Bolted - The piping support assembly clamped together using bolts rather than band straps.

 

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C

Calcium Silicate - An incombustible insulation material utilized in Hot line supports. (see catalog)

 

Cell Size - The average cell diameter in microns (m) (ASTM D2842)

 

Channel Clamp - A special type of fabricated hold down clamp consisting of two plates and bolted at three places. (See PT&P standard drawing ICS-CC-100)

 

Closed Cell Content - The percentage of a foam consisting of closed no-interconnecting cells. (ASTM D2856)

 

Cold Shoe - A type of assembly used to give necessary support to a piping system while not dissipating cryogenic temperatures of the piping system at a certain point. (see catalog)

 

Combustibility - A measure of the resistance of a material to flame or high heat source. (Laboratory testing methods for this property are not intended to reflect the hazards presented by rigid urethane foam or any other material under actual fire conditions.)

 

Compressive Strength - The maximum compressive stress which a material is capable of sustaining. It is calculated from the maximum load during a compression test and the original cross-sectional area of the specimen. It is expressed in psi.(ASTM D1621)

 

Cryogenic - A state of materials at and under ambient temperatures.

 

Cryogenic Pipe Support - (also known as cold shoe) A type of assembly used to give necessary support to a piping system while not dissipating cryogenic temperatures of the piping system at a certain point. (see catalog)

 

 

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D

Dimensional Stability - Change in dimensions of a specimen on exposure to various environments is called Dimensional Stability. It can be expressed as a % volume change or a linear change in dimensions. (ASTM D2126)

 

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E

Elastic Limit - It is the greatest stress which a material is capable of sustaining without any permanent strain remaining after complete release of the stress.

 

Elongation - The increase in gage length of a tension test specimen usually expressed as a percentage of original gage length. (ASTM D1623)

 

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F

Fabrication - A process in which material is cut to certain size and molded into different required shapes.

 

Fire Temp - An incombustible insulation material having high density and compressive strength used in Hot line supports. (see catalog)

 

Flexural Strength - The maximum stress in the outer fiber at the moment of crack or break (expressed as psi) (ASTM D790)

 

Frothing Process - is a method of pouring the liquid ingredients of urethane foam in which partial extrusion takes place before the polymerization reaction begins. In appearance, frothed foam is like shaving cream from an aerosol can.

 

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G

Galvanizing - An electromagnetic process of protecting metallic surfaces from corrosion or rust. This process is also known as electroplating.

 

Gap - The spacing at the junction of upper and lower cradles or clamps of the pipe shoe assembly.

 

Guide - A pipe support utilized to restrict the lateral movement of a piping system at a certain location.

 

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H

Hanger - A type of pipe support consisting of a clamp in which the piping system is upheld from an upper portion rather than form base. This type of pipe support is available with or without insulation.

 

Hot Dip Galvanizing - A process of protecting metallic surfaces from corrosion or rust by dipping the materials for a certain period in boiling chemicals.

 

Hot Shoe - A type of assembly used to give necessary support to a piping system while not dissipating elevated temperatures of the piping system at a certain point. (see catalog)

 

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I

Inner Thrust Ring - It is a plate welded to the outer arch of a pipe to restrict the sliding of the insulation assembly against the pipe wall.

 

Inserts - The insulation material, usually of higher compressive strength, joined to the existing insulation in order provide reinforcement to a pipe support.

 

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K

K-Factor - Numerical representation of Thermal conductivity (See Thermal Conductivity).

 

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L

Layering System - A procedure of dividing insulation thickness into smaller increments of layers for total insulation thickness above 3.5".

 

Linear Expansion Coefficient - It is the ratio of the change in length per degree temperature change to the original length (ASTM D696).

 

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M

Mean Specific Heat - is the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of a substance one degree, measured as the average quantity over the temperature range specified (ASTM C351).

 

Modulus of Elasticity - It is the ratio of stress to corresponding strain below the proportional limit. Since rigid foams do not conform to Hooke's Law throughout their elastic range, a "tangent modulus of elasticity" is used - the tangent having the slope of the greatest part of the curve that follows Hooke's Law (expressed in psi).

 

Monolar Mastic - A type of coating used to protect polyurethane surface from moisture permeation.

 

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P

Pipe Support - An assembly used to uphold a piping system at desired location.

 

Polyurethane Foam - The insulation material available in a variety of densities used in cryogenic lines. (see catalog)

 

Proportional Limit - is the greatest stress which a material is capable of sustaining without any deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain (Hooke's Law)

 

Protection Shield - The metallic component of piping support wrapped directly around the insulation in order to keep the assembly intact and provide necessary protection to the insulation.

 

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R

Rate of Rise - Rate of Rise is the rate at which the volume of a foaming system changes under standard conditions. (ASTM D2237)

 

Rigid Urethane Foams - These include a variety of foams having a wide range of properties. Densities range from 60 lb / ft to below 1 lb / ft and the properties change with densities. Rigid Urethane foams have, in general, low elongation (<10%), and a low elastic limit (<10%). They can be crushed and will not recover if compressed beyond their elastic limit.

 

Roller Base - A pipe support assembly utilized to allow axial movement of a piping system by using rollers instead of slide plates. Usually, these rollers are attached to the base of pipe supports to allow necessary movement as the piping system expands or contracts. (See PT&P standard drawing ICS-RB-100.)

 

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S

Semi-Rigid Urethane Foam - is a term often applied to low density (<2 lb / ft) rigid urethane foams and other foams having more flexibility.

 

Shear Strength - It is the maximum shear stress a material is capable of sustaining. It is calculated from the maximum load during a shear test and is based on the original dimensions of the cross-sections of the specimen. (ASTM C273)

 

Slide Plate - An assembly of two plates utilized to reduce the coefficient of friction between their contact surfaces. Usually, these plates are attached to the base or sides of pipe supports to allow necessary movement as the piping system expands or contracts.

 

Solvent Resistance - Solvent Resistance is the percent change in volume or the weight pick up of solvent per ft of foam on immersion in a solvent. (ASTM D543)

 

Sound Absorption - is the fraction of the incident sound that is absorbed by the material. (ASTM C384)

 

Specific Heat - (See Mean Specific Heat)

 

Stops - Materials used to restrict the sliding of the insulated support assembly against the pipe and clamp surfaces.

 

Strain - is a measure of the change, due to force, in the size or shape of a body compared to its original size or shape. Strain is a non dimensional quantity, but it is frequently expressed in inches per inch (meters per meters) (ASTM D790)

 

Stress - is the intensity at a point in a body of the internal forces or components of force that act on a given plane through the point (expressed as psi). It is calculated on the original dimensions of the specimen before it is tested. (ASTM D790)

 

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T

Tensile Strength - is the maximum tensile stress which a material is capable of sustaining. Tensile Strength is calculated from the maximum load carried to rupture during a tension test and the original cross-sectional area of the specimen (ASTM D1623)

 

Thermal Conductivity - It is the rate of heat flow, under steady conditions, through unit area, per unit temperature gradient in the direction perpendicular to the area. Thermal Conductivity is usually expressed in English units as BTU's per square foot per hour per degree Fahrenheit for a thickness of one inch. (ASTM C518)

 

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W

Water Absorption - is the amount of water a specimen picks up on total immersion in water over a specified time. Water absorption is usually expressed as lbs.-water / ft of foam or as percent of the total foam weight. (ASTM D2842)

 

Water Vapor Transmission - is the rate at which moisture will pass through a homogeneous material. The rate may vary on exposure conditions. Water Vapor Transmission is usually expressed as "per-inches" which is the grains of water transmitted per square foot per hour per inch differential of mercury for a one inch specimen thickness. (ASTM C355)

 

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Y

Yield Point - Yield Point is the first stress in a material (less than the maximum attainable stress) at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. ASTM D1621

 

Yield Strength - It is the stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. The deviation is expressed in terms of strain. Since low density rigid urethane foam exhibits a definite yield point, the yield strength is the stress at this point. High density rigid urethane foams do not exhibit a yield point so the yield strength is the stress at which there is marked deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. An offset method can also be used (usually at a strain of 0.2%)

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